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Short Rules For Spelling
Words ending in e drop that letter on taking a suffix beginning with a
vowel. Exceptions--words ending in ge, ce, or oe.
Final e of a primitive word is retained on taking a suffix beginning
with a consonant. Exceptions--words ending in dge, and truly, duly, etc.
Final y of a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, is generally
changed into i on the addition of a suffix. Exceptions--retained before
ing and ish, as pitying. Words ending in ie and dropping the e by Rule
1, change the i to y, as lying. Final y is sometimes changed to e, as
Nouns ending in y, preceded by a vowel, form their plural by adding s; o
as money, moneys. Y preceded by a consonant is changed to ies in the
plural; as bounty, bounties.
Final y of a primitive vowel, preceded by a vowel, should not be changed
into i before a suffix; as, joyless.
In words containing ei or ie, ei is used after the sound s, as ceiling,
seize, except in siege and in a few words ending in cier. Inveigle,
neither, leisure and weird also have ei. In other cases ie is used, as
in believe, achieve.
Words ending in ceous or cious, when relating to matter, end in ceous;
all others in cious.
Words of one syllable, ending in a consonant; with a single vowel before
it, double the consonant in derivatives; as, ship, shipping, etc. But if
ending in a consonant with a double vowel before it, they do not double
the consonant in derivatives; as troop, trooper, etc.
Words of more than one syllable, ending in a consonant preceded by a
single vowel, and accented on the last syllable, double that consonant
in derivatives; as commit, committed; but except chagrin, chagrined;
All words of one syllable ending in l, with a single vowel before it,
have ll at the close; as mill, sell.
All words of one syllable ending in l, with a double vowel before it,
have only one l at the close: as mail, sail.
The words foretell, distill, instill and fulfill retain the double ll of
their primitives. Derivatives of dull, skill, will and full also retain
the double ll when the accent falls on these words; as dullness,
skillful, willful, fullness.
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